Paratexts are devices and conventions such as titles, forewords, epigraphs and publishers’ jacket copy, both within and outside a document, that form part of the complex mediation between book, author, publisher and reader.


Caro & Bisseret (1997) use the term "paralinguistic organizers" about textual devices like underlining, brackets, footnotes, and, on screen, pop up-fields etc.






Caro, S. & Bisseret, A. (1997). Étude expérimentale de l'usage des organisateurs paralinguistiques de mise en retrait dans les documents électroniques.[Using weakening paralinguistic organizers in electronic documents: an experimental approach ]. Le Travail Humain, 60(4), 409-437. (In French).


Dalgaard, R. (2001). Hypertext and the Scholarly Archive: Intertexts, Paratexts and Metatexts at Work. IN: Proceedings of the 12th ACM conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (august 2001, Aarhus, Denmark). New York: ACM Press: 175-184. Available:


Genette, G. (1997). Paratexts. Thresholds of interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Grafton, A. (1997). The Footnote: A Curious History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.



See also: Footnote



Birger Hjørland

Last edited: 16-05-2006