Standards, Norms and Guidelines in KO



Anderson (1997) is a technical report sponsored by the National Information Standards Organization that provides guidelines for the content, organization, and presentation of indexes used for the retrieval of documents and parts of documents. It deals with the principles of indexing, regardless of the type of material indexed, the indexing method used (intellectual analysis, machine algorithm, or both), the medium of the index, or the method of presentation for searching. It emphasizes three processes essential for all indexes: comprehensive design, vocabulary management, and the provision of syntax. It includes definitions of indexes and of their parts, attributes, and aspects; a uniform vocabulary; treatment of the nature and variety of indexes; and recommendations regarding the design, organization, and presentation of indexes. It does not suggest guide-lines for every detail or technique of indexing. These can be determined for each index on the basis of factors covered in the technical report.









Anderson, J. D. (1997). Guidelines for Indexes and Related Information Retrieval Devices. Bethesda: NISO. NISO TR-02-1997.


DS 377:1980 Alfabetiseringsregler


IFLA. Functional requirements.


Functional requirements for bibliographical data.


ISO-standards for information science.


ISO. 1985. Documentation -- Methods for Examining Documents, Determining their Subjects and Selecting Indexing Terms. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 5963-1985


ISO 2788: Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri. 2.ed. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1986.


ISO 214.1976 Abstracts for publications and documentation.

Presents guidelines for the preparation and presentation of abstracts of documents. Applies to abstracts prepared by the authors of primary documents, and to their publication, because such abstracts can be both helpful to the readers of these documents and reproducible with little or no change in secondary publications and services. The basic guidelines are also suitable for the preparation of abstracts by persons other than the authors. Cancels and replaces ISO Recommendation R 214-1961, of which it constitutes a technical revision.


ISO 690:1987 Bibliographic references - Content, form and structure.

Contents of ISO 690:1987
1. Scope and field of application
2. References
3. Definitions
4. Outline of bibliographic references
4.1 Monographs
4.2 Serials
4.3 Parts of or contributions to monographs
4.3.1 Parts of monographs
4.3.2 Contributions to monographs
4.4 Articles, etc., in serials
4.5 Patent documents
5. Sources of information
6. General conventions
6.1 Transliteration or Romanization
6.2 Abbreviation
6.3 Capitalization
6.4 Punctuation
6.5 Typeface
6.6 Additions or corrections

7. Specification of elements
7.1 Primary responsibility
7.2 Title
7.3 Subordinate responsibility
7.4 Edition
7.5 Issue designation (serials)
7.6 Publication data
7.7 Extent
7.8 Series
7.9 Other information
7.10 Standard number
7.11 Component part (chapter, article, etc.)
7.12 Elements of references to patent documents

8. Lists of bibliographic references
8.1 Arrangement
8.2 Two or more items with the same first element
8.3 All items with the same first entry element
8.4 Position of the "Primary responsibility" element

9. Citations
9.1 Relationship between references and text citations
9.2 Numeric references method
9.3 Running notes
9.4 First element and date method

ISO 690-2 Bibliographic references -- Part 2: Electronic documents or parts thereof link opens in a new window
Contents of ISO 690-2

1. Scope
2. References
3. Definitions
4. Sources of information

5. Outline of bibliographic references
5.1. Electronic monographs, databases and computer programs
5.1.1. Entire document
5.1.2. Parts of
5.1.3. Contributions to
5.2. Electronic serials
5.2.1. Entire serial
5.2.2. Articles and other contributions
5.3. Electronic bulletin boards, discussion lists and electronic messages
5.3.1. Entire message system
5.3.2. Electronic messages

6. General conventions
6.1. Transliteration or Romanization
6.2. Abbreviation
6.3. Capitalization
6.4. Punctuation
6.5. Typeface
6.6. Additions or corrections

7. Specification of elements
7.1. Primary responsibility
7.1.1. Persons and corporate bodies
7.1.2. Presentation of names
7.1.3. Corporate bodies
7.1.4. Two or three names
7.1.5. More than three names
7.1.6. Primary responsibility unknown
7.2. Title
7.2.1. Presentation
7.2.2. Translation
7.2.3. More than one title
7.2.4. Subtitle
7.2.5. Abridgement
7.2.6. Title unknown
7.3. Type of medium
7.4. Subordinate responsibility
7.4.1. Persons or corporate bodies with subordinate responsibility
7.4.2. Presentation
7.5. Edition
7.5.1. Presentation
7.5.2. Abbreviations and numeric terms
7.6. Issue designation for serials
7.6.1. Presentation
7.6.2. Designation of the first issue only
7.6.3. Designation of a complete or partial run
7.7. Place of publication
7.7.1. Presentation
7.7.2. More than one place
7.7.3. Place of publication unknown
7.8. Publisher
7.8.1. Presentation
7.8.2. More than one publisher
7.8.3. Publisher unknown
7.9. Dates
7.9.1. Presentation
7.9.2. Date of publication Electronic documents spanning more than one date Date of publication unknown
7.9.3. Date of update/revision
7.9.4. Date of citation
7.10. Series
7.11. Notes
7.11.1. Physical description
7.11.2. Accompanying material
7.11.3. System requirements
7.11.4. Frequency of publication
7.11.5. Language
7.11.6. Other notes
7.12. Availability and access
7.12.1. Online documents
7.12.2. Other availability information
7.13. Standard number
7.14. Component parts and contributions
7.14.1. Parts of electronic documents
7.14.2. Contributions in electronic documents
7.14.3. Numeration within host document or system
7.14.4. Location within host document

8. Relationship between references and text citations
Annex A: Bibliography

Errata [separate page]
Supplement: Additional examples [separate page]
Supplement: Excerpts from ISO 690:1987 on general rules for transcription, lists of bibliographic references and citation methods [separate page]


Katalogiseringsregler og bibliografisk standard for danske biblioteker.


National Information Standards Organization. 1997. Guidelines for Abstracts. Bethesda: NISO. ANSI/NISO Z39.14-1997.

Netpublikationer. Statens standard for elektronisk publicering.





See also: Standardization in KO;  Standardization work (epistemological lifeboat)




Birger Hjørland

Last edited: 16-09-2006