Standards, norms & guidelines


Anderson, James D. 1997. Guidelines for Indexes and Related Information Retrieval Devices. Bethesda: NISO. NISO TR-02-1997. 59 pages.

Abstract: This technical report provides guidelines for the content, organization, and presentation of indexes used for the retrieval of documents and parts of documents. It deals with the principles of indexing, regardless of the type of material indexed, the indexing method used (intellectual analysis, machine algorithm, or both), the medium of the index, or the method of presentation for searching. It emphasizes three processes essential for all indexes: comprehensive design, vocabulary management, and the provision of syntax. It includes definitions of indexes and of their parts, attributes, and aspects; a uniform vocabulary; treatment of the nature and variety of indexes; and recommendations regarding the design, organization, and presentation of indexes. It does not suggest guidelines for every detail or technique of indexing. These can be determined for each index on the basis of factors covered in the technical report. A Technical Report Sponsored by the National Information Standards Organization.


Biblioteksstyrelsen: Katalogiseringsregler og bibliografisk standard for danske biblioteker.


DS 377:1980 Alfabetiseringsregler

Danish Standard about alphabetical arrangements.  

IFLA: Functional Requirements for bibliographic records:


National Information Standards Organization (NISO). 1997. Guidelines for Abstracts. Bethesda: NISO. ANSI/NISO Z39.14-1997.



Overview of ISO standards for LIS:


ISO 5963:1985. Documentation - Methods for examining documents, determining their subjects, and selecting indexing terms.


ISO 2788:1986 Documentation -- Guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesauri.


ISO 214.1976 Abstracts for publications and documentation

Abstract. Presents guidelines for the preparation and presentation of abstracts of documents. Applies to abstracts prepared by the authors of primary documents, and to their publication, because such abstracts can be both helpful to the readers of these documents and reproducible with little or no change in secondary publications and services. The basic guidelines are also suitable for the preparation of abstracts by persons other than the authors. Cancels and replaces ISO Recommendation R 214-1961, of which it constitutes a technical revision.


ISO 690:1987 Bibliographic references - Content, form and structure


ISO 690-2 Bibliographic references -- Part 2: Electronic documents or parts thereof

These excerpts from ISO 690, Part 2 show the basic specifications for data elements and their prescribed order in bibliographic references to electronic documents. You are welcome to make links to this document but please do not copy or redistribute it from this Web site. This is a copyright document of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO uses the revenue from the sale of its standards to support its standardization work. The full text of this standard is available for purchase from ISO's member bodies. This International Standard was prepared by ISO Technical Committee (TC) 46, Subcommittee (SC) 9 which develops International Standards for the identification and description of information resources. 


Skov, A. (2000). Referér korrekt!: Om udarbejdelse af bibliografiske referencer. København: Danmarks Biblioteksskole.


Birger Hjørland

Last edited: 19-07-2007