Google, the online-search company that promises to "organize the world's information". Google was brought to life in September 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Since then has the company expanded to more than 4,000 employees worldwide.


According to Bell (2004), “Google has become the symbol of competition to the academic library”.


In November 2004 was the "Google Scholar" launched. Neuhaus et al. (2006) found that Google Scholar's current strengths is coverage of science and medical databases, open access databases, and single publisher databases. Current weaknesses include lack of coverage  of social science and humanities databases and an English language bias.






Banks, M. A. (2005). The excitement of Google Scholar, the worry of Google Print. Biomedical! Digital Libraries, 2(2), March.  


Battelle, J. (2005). The search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Boston, MA; London: Nicholas Brearley Publishing.


Bell, S. (2004), “The infodiet: how libraries can offer an appetizing alternative to Google”, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(24), p. B15.


Blachman, N. 2005. Google guide: Making searching even easier.


Brophy, J. & Bawden, D. (2005). Is Google enough? Comparison of an internet search engine with academic library resources. ASLIB Proceedings, 57(6), 498-512.


Butler, D. 2004. Science searches shift up a gear as Google starts Scholar
engine. Nature, (November 2004).  


Introna, L. & H. Nissenbaum, H. (2000). Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters. The Information Society, 16(3), pp. 1-17 .Retrieved 2007-06-07 from:


Jacso, P. 2004. Google Sch! ! olar Beta. Peter's Digital Reference Shelf.

Jacso, P. 2005. Peter Jacso: Google Scholar and The Scientist (October
2005). URL:  


Gerhart, S. (2004). Do Web search engines suppress controversy? First Monday, 9(1),


Hamaker, C., and Spry, B (2005). Google Scholar. Serials, 18(1), 70-72.



Miller, W. & Pellen, R. M. (Eds.). (2005). Libraries and Google. Haworth Press.



Neuhaus, C.; Neuhaus, E.; Asher, A. & Wrede, C. (2006). The depth and breadth of Google Scholar: An empirical study. Portal-Libraries and the Academy, 6(2), 127-141.


Noruzi, A. (2005). Google scholar: The new generation of citation indexes. Libri. International Journal of Libraries and Information Services, 55(4), 170-180.


Pomerantz, J. (2006). Google Scholar and 100 percent availability of information. Information Technology and Libraries, 25(2), 52-56. 


Thelwall, M. (2003). Can Google's PageRank be used to find the most important academic Web pooes? Journal of Documentation, 59(2), 205-217.


Wilson, T.D. (2005). Review of: Battelle, J. The search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Boston, MA, London: Nicholas Brearley Publishing, 2005.   Information Research, 11(1), review no. R190.  Available at:





Google scholar:

Google Scholar. 2005. About Google Scholar.  




See also: Citation Indexing (Core Concepts in LIS); Internet (Core Concepts in LIS);




Birger Hjørland

Last edited: 08-06-2007