Image classification and indexing

"Concept-based" image retrieval focuses on using words to retrieve images (e.g. title, subject heading, keyword or caption as subject access points), whereas "content-based" image retrieval or CBIR focuses on the visual features of the image (e.g. size, colors, textures, etc.). 


Chu (2001) confirms that there exist two distinctive research groups employing the content-based and description-based approaches, respectively. However, research in the content-based domain is currently dominating in the field, while the other approach has less visibility.







Ahmad, K., M. Tariq, B. Vrusias and C.Handy. 2003. Corpus-based thesaurus construction for image retrieval in specialist domains. In Sebastiani, F. (ed.). Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Retrieval Research (ECIR-03). 502–510. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.


Angeles, M. (1998). Information Organization and Information Use of Visual Resources Collections. VRA Bulletin, 25 (3), 51-58.


Chu, H. T. (2001). Research in image indexing and retrieval as reflected in the literature. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(12), 1011-1018.


Deb, S. (Ed.). (2004). Multimedia Systems and Content-Based Image Retrieval. Hershey, PA: Idea group publishing.


Elkins, J. (1999).  The Domain of Images. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.


Fidel, R.; Hahn, T. B.; Rasmussen, E. M. & Smith, P. J. (1994). Challenges in Indexing Electronic Text and Images. Medford, NJ: Learned Information. (ASIS Monograph Series)


Heidorn, P. B. & Sandore, B. (Eds.). (1997). Digital Image Access & Retrieval: Proceedings of the 1996 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. Illinois: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science.


Jörgensen, C. (2003). Image Retrieval. Theory and Research. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press.


Kjellman, U. (2006). Från kungaporträtt till läskeetikett. En domänanalytisk studie över Kungl. bibliotekets bildsamling med särskild inriktning mot katalogiserings- och indexeringsfrågor. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitet. (Skrifter utgivna av Institionen för ABM vid Uppsala Universitet. Volym 2).


Landbeck, C. R. (2002). The organization and categorization of political cartoons: An exploratory study. The Florida State University, School of Information Studies. (Master of Science thesis).


Lamy-Rousseau, F. (1984). Classification des images, materiels et donnees = Classification   of   images, materials and data . 2nd ed. Longueuil, Quebec: F. Lamy-Rousseau.


Panofsky, E. (1962). Studies in Icology: Humanistic themes in the art of the Renaissance. New York: Harper & Row.


Rasmussen, E. M. (1997). Indexing images. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 32, 169-196.


Shatford, S. (1986). Analyzing the Subject of a Picture: A Theoretical Approach. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 6(3), 39-62.


Wang, J. Z. (2001). Integrated Region-Based Image Retrieval. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Book review:


Warden, G.; Dunbar, D.; Wanczycki, C. & O'Hanley, S. (2002). The Subject Analysis of Images: Past, Present and Future.


Ørnager, S.  (1997). Image retrieval - Theoretical analysis and empirical user studies on accessing information in images. Proceedings of the ASIS annual meeting, 34, 202-211.



See also: Hermitage Museum ICONCLASS; Ofness; Picture (Core concepts in LIS).






Birger Hjørland

Last edited: 10-06-2007